Happy Anniversary! On this day 150 years ago, the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified by the requisite number of U.S. States, including most (but not all) of the southern States that had left the Union and joined the rebel and pro-slavery Confederacy. But considering that these former rebel States were at war with the United States, should the votes of these States have counted toward ratification? Also, how should this Amendment be interpreted in light of the state action doctrine? Specifically, which branch of government has the authority to enforce the provisions of the Thirteenth Amendment?